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Latest Physician News2019-02-15T12:10:02+00:00

Latest in Sleep Medicine News

Water Pipe (Hookah) Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

Tobacco smoking with a water pipe or hookah is increasing globally. There are millions of water pipe tobacco smokers worldwide, and in the United States, water pipe use is more common among youth and young adults than among adults. The spread of water pipe tobacco smoking has been abetted by the marketing of flavored tobacco, a social media environment that promotes water pipe smoking, and misperceptions about the addictive potential and potential adverse health effects of this form of tobacco use. There is growing evidence that water pipe tobacco smoking affects heart rate, blood pressure regulation, baroreflex sensitivity, tissue oxygenation, and vascular function over the short term. Long-term water pipe use is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Several harmful or potentially harmful substances present in cigarette smoke are also present in water pipe smoke, often at levels exceeding those found in cigarette smoke. Water pipe tobacco smokers have a higher risk of initiation of cigarette smoking than never smokers. Future studies that focus on the long-term adverse health effects of intermittent water pipe tobacco use are critical to strengthen the evidence base and to inform the regulation of water pipe products and use. The objectives of this statement are to describe the design and operation of water pipes and their use patterns, to identify harmful and potentially harmful constituents in water pipe smoke, to document the cardiovascular risks of water pipe use, to review current approaches to water pipe smoking cessation, and to offer guidance to healthcare providers for the identification and treatment of individuals who smoke

Author:
Aruni Bhatnagar | Wasim Maziak | Thomas Eissenberg | Kenneth D. Ward | George Thurston | Brian A. King | Erin L. Sutfin | Caroline O. Cobb | Merlyn Griffiths | Larry B. Goldstein | Mary Rezk-Hanna

Source: https://www.mdedge.com/chestphysician/article/194683/sleep-medicine/sleep-strategies

Sleep Strategies

Compared with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the prevalence of central sleep apnea (CSA) is low in the general population. However, in adults, CSA may be highly prevalent in certain conditions, most commonly among those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and opioid users (Javaheri S, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 69:841). CSA may also be found in patients with carotid artery stenosis, cervical neck injury, and renal dysfunction. CSA can occur when OSA is treated (treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, or TECA), notably, and most frequently, with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. Though in many individuals, this frequently resolves with continued use of the device.

Author: Shahrokh Javaheri, MD, FCCP  Robin Germany, MD  William T. Abraham, MD  And Maria Rosa Costanzo, MD

Source: https://www.mdedge.com/chestphysician/article/194683/sleep-medicine/sleep-strategies

PAP may reduce mortality in patients with obesity and severe OSA

The prescription of positive airway pressure is associated with reduced all-cause mortality, according to the results of a cohort study published in JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery.

The association becomes evident several years after positive airway pressure (PAP) initiation, according to the researchers. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is among the top 10 modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, and is associated with increased risks of coronary artery disease, stroke, and death. PAP is the most effective treatment for OSA, but this treatment’s effect on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality is uncertain. Randomized trials have yielded inconclusive answers to this question, and evidence from observational studies has been weak.

To investigate the association between PAP prescription and mortality in patients with obesity and severe OSA, Quentin Lisan, MD, of the Paris Cardiovascular Research Center and his colleagues conducted a multicenter, population-based cohort study. The researchers examined data for 392 participants in the Sleep Heart Health Study, in which adult men and women age 40 years or older were recruited from nine population-based studies between 1995 and 1998 and followed for a mean of 11.1 years. With each participant who had been prescribed PAP, the investigators matched as many as four participants who had not been prescribed PAP, on the basis of age, sex, and apnea-hypopnea index. Of this sample, 81 patients were prescribed PAP, and 311 were not.

All participants had a clinic visit and underwent overnight polysomnography at baseline. At 2-3 years, participants had a follow-up visit or phone call, during which they were asked whether their physicians had prescribed PAP. Participants were monitored for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.

In all, 319 of the 392 participants were men; the population’s mean age was 63 years. Patients who had received a PAP prescription had a higher body mass index and more education, compared with patients who had not received a prescription. Mean follow-up duration was 11.6 years in the PAP-prescribed group and 10.9 years in the nonprescribed group.

A total of 96 deaths occurred during follow-up: 12 in the PAP-prescribed group and 84 in the nonprescribed PAP group. The crude incidence rate of mortality was 24.7 deaths per 1,000 person-years in the nonprescribed group and 12.8 deaths per 1,000 person-years in the PAP-prescribed group. The difference in survival between the prescribed and nonprescribed groups was evident in survival curves after 6-7 years of follow-up. After adjustments for prevalent cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, body mass index, education level, smoking status, and alcohol consumption, the hazard ratio of all-cause mortality for the prescribed group was 0.38, compared with the nonprescribed group.

Dr. Lisan and his colleagues identified 27 deaths of cardiovascular origin, one of which occurred in the prescribed group. After adjusting for prevalent cardiovascular disease, the hazard ratio of cardiovascular mortality for the prescribed group was 0.06, compared with the nonprescribed group.

One reason that the reduction in mortality associated with PAP was not found in previous randomized, controlled trials could be that their mean length of follow-up was not long enough, the researchers wrote. For example, the mean length of follow-up in the SAVE trial was 3.7 years, but the survival benefit was not apparent in the present analysis until 6-7 years after treatment initiation.

These results are exploratory and require confirmation in future research, Dr. Lisan and his colleagues wrote. No information on adherence to PAP was available, and the researchers could not account for initiation and interruption of PAP therapy. Nevertheless, “prescribing PAP in patients with OSA should be pursued and encouraged, given its potential major public health implication,” they concluded.

The Sleep Heart Health Study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health.

Author: Erik Greb

Source: https://www.mdedge.com/chestphysician/article/199393/sleep-medicine/pap-may-reduce-mortality-patients-obesity-and-severe

Latest in Sleep Medicine Research

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Search Terms: Insomnia, Narcolepsy, REM Sleep, Sleep Apnea, Sleep Quality

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