Compared with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the prevalence of central sleep apnea (CSA) is low in the general population. However, in adults, CSA may be highly prevalent in certain conditions, most commonly among those with left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, stroke, and opioid users (Javaheri S, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 69:841). CSA may also be found in patients with carotid artery stenosis, cervical neck injury, and renal dysfunction. CSA can occur when OSA is treated (treatment-emergent central sleep apnea, or TECA), notably, and most frequently, with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. Though in many individuals, this frequently resolves with continued use of the device.
Author: Shahrokh Javaheri, MD, FCCP Robin Germany, MD William T. Abraham, MD And Maria Rosa Costanzo, MD